10月 032010
 

本人硕士论文:Conflicts of interest : the opium problem in Guangdong, 1858-1917 (中文译名: 利益之爭 : 1858-1917年間廣東鴉片問題探析)

全文免费开放下载地址:http://umaclib3.umac.mo/record=b2536990

Conflicts of Interest: The Opium Problem in Guangdong, 1858-1917
利益之爭:1858-1917年間廣東鴉片問題探析

A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for
the degree of Master of Arts in History at the University of Macau 

Author: MA Guang (馬光)
Student I.D.: MA855399
Supervisor: Professor Robert James ANTONY

Department of History, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, University of Macau
November 2010

CONTENTS 

Figures, Tables and Maps. I

List of Abbreviations. II

Acknowledgments. III

Abstract IV

1 Introduction. 1

1.1 Background. 1

1.2 Literature Review.. 4

1.3 Significance and Methodology. 16

2 Foreign Opium Coming into Guangdong Province. 23

2.1 Amount of Foreign Opium through Foreign Customs into Guangdong. 23

2.2 Taxation and Lijin on Foreign Opium at Foreign Customs. 33

2.3 Summary. 36

3 Conflicts of Interest between Native Customs and Foreign Customs. 38

3.1 Overview of the History of Customs in China. 38

3.2 Conflicts of Interest over Opium Taxation and Lijin. 41

3.3 Summary. 50

4 Conflicts of Interest over Opium Taxes between the Central and Provincial Governments  51

4.1 Customs Taxation in the Qing Dynasty. 51

4.2 Conflicts of Interest over Opium Taxes between the Central and Guangdong Governments  55

4.3 Summary. 60

5 Cultivation, Importation and Consumption of Native Opium in Guangdong. 61

5.1 Poppy Cultivation in Guangdong Province. 61

5.2 Routes of Native Opium Importation into Guangdong. 64

5.3 Consumption and Re-export of Native Opium into Guangdong. 67

5.4 Competition between Native Opium and Foreign Opium.. 71

5.5 Summary. 74

6 Foreign Opium Smuggling and Anti-smuggling Actions. 75

6.1 Routes of Foreign Opium Smuggled into Guangdong. 75

6.2 Organization of Foreign Opium Smuggling. 81

6.3 An Estimate of the Amount of Foreign Opium Smuggled into Guangdong. 84

6.4 Actions to Suppress Opium Smuggling. 87

6.5 Summary. 90

7 Conclusion. 92

Conventions and Equivalences. 96

Character List 97

Appendixes. 99

Appendix 1: Net Opium Importation at Each Port, 1863-1870. 99

Appendix 2: Revenue of Each Port 102

Appendix 3: Amount of Native Opium Consumed and Imported, and Its Price in Guangdong Province, 1889-1915. 120

Bibliography. 122

Curriculum Vitae. 141

 

Figures, Tables and Maps  

Figures

Figure 1: Foreign opium coming into mainland China, Guangdong and Shanghai through foreign customs, 1863-1917. 25

Figure 2: The rate of foreign opium imports into Guangdong and Shanghai to those into China  27

Figure 3: The average amount of opium through the Canton Foreign Customs, 1859-1917  28

Figure 4: Amount of opium through the Canton Foreign Customs, 1909-1917. 31

Figure 5: The rate of opium income to the customs’ revenue in Guangdong. 35

Figure 6: Amount of opium import through the Canton Foreign Customs, 1866-1877  46

Figure 7: Amount of opium import through the Canton Foreign Customs, 1886-1891  50

Figure 8: The estimated amount of native opium coming into Guangdong. 68

Figure 9: Foreign opium through the Lappa Customs import into the Xiasifu area and Haikou, through the Kiungchow Customs, and legally coming into the Xiasifu area and Zhaoqing. 79

Figure 10: Opium through the Lappa Customs, and from H.K. to Guangzhouwan. 81

Figure 11: Amount of foreign opium through the Canton Foreign Customs. 88

 

Tables

Table 1: Budget deficit of provinces in the Late Qing Dynasty. 53

Table 2: The price of native opium in Guangdong. 69

Table 3: Opium imported, exported and smuggled in Macau, 1883-1885. 77

Table 4: The estimated amount of foreign opium smuggled into Guangdong. 85

Table 5: The situation of the export of foreign opium in Hong Kong in 1871. 86

Maps

Map 1: Map of the two native customs stations around Macau. 44

Map 2 : Map of the four native customs stations around Hong Kong. 45

Map 3: Routes of native opium coming into Guangdong. 66

 

Acknowledgments 

I would like to thank many people for helping me to get this thesis finished.

First and foremost, I owe my deepest gratitude to my supervisor, Prof. Robert James Antony, a respectable and responsible scholar. Without his enlightening instruction, impressive kindness and patience, I could not have completed my thesis. His keen and vigorous academic observation enlightens me not only in this thesis but also in my future study.

Next, I shall extend my thanks to several professors: Tang Kaijian, Paul Van Dyke, George Wei, Vincent Ho, and Hao Yufan at the University of Macau, Takeshi Hamashita at Sun Yat-sen University, Lin Faqin at Macau Polytechnic Institute, and Wang Shoukuan and Feng Peihong at Lanzhou University, for all their kindness and help. I am indebted to my many friends, especially Chen Zichang, Wang Qichen, Zhao Xinliang and Zhang Zhongpeng, for their encouragement and support.

What’s more, I am very grateful to the Department of History of the University of Macau, Macau Documentation and Information Society and Macau Oral History Association, for their generous support in funding my research.

Finally, special thanks go to my family, especially my parents, who have supported me throughout so many years of education, both morally and financially.

 

Abstract 

The aim of this thesis is to study the opium problem in Guangdong Province between 1858 and 1917. The period of 1858-1917 is a very special stage of opium trade in China, because from 1858 the opium trade became legal in China, and after 1917 all the records of opium import disappeared in the reports of the Chinese maritime customs. During this special period there were large amounts of foreign and Chinese native opium legally or illegally coming into Guangdong, which had a profound influence on the society in Guangdong at the time. This thesis will focus on the opium problem in Guangdong during this special period, including the opium import and significance of opium taxation to maritime customs, and several conflicts relating to the opium problem between different interest groups: foreign customs and native customs, the Chinese central government and local government, Chinese opium and foreign opium, and opium smugglers and preventive officers.

It is my contention that the study of these conflicts of interest over opium is a key to understanding the social, economic, and political history of modern China.

 

硕士论文在澳门大学图书馆相关信息与全文下载页面:

Author Ma, Guang

TitleConflicts of interest : the opium problem in Guangdong, 1858-1917 / Ma Guang = 利益之爭 : 1858-1917年間廣東鴉片問題探析 / 馬光.

PublishedMacau : University of Macau, 2010.

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Physical Description iv, 141 p. : ill. (some col.), tables ; 30 cm.
Note “A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in History at the University of Macau”.
“Supervisor: Professor Robert James Antony”.
“Department of History, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, University of Macau, November 2010”.
Thesis Thesis (M.A.) — University of Macau, 2010.
Bibliography Includes bibliographical references (p. 122-140).
Summary The aim of this thesis is to study the opium problem in Guangdong Province between 1858 and 1917. The period of 1858-1917 is a very special stage of opium trade in China, because from 1858 the opium trade became legal in China, and after 1917 all the records of opium import disappeared in the reports of the Chinese maritime customs. During this special period there were large amounts of foreign and Chinese native opium legally or illegally coming into Guangdong, which had a profound influence on the society in Guangdong at the time. This thesis will focus on the opium problem in Guangdong during this special period, including the opium import and significance of opium taxation to maritime customs, and several conflicts relating to the opium problem between different interest groups: foreign customs and native customs, the Chinese central government and local government, Chinese opium and foreign opium, and opium smugglers and preventive officers. It is my contention that the study of these conflicts of interest over opium is a key to understanding the social, economic, and political history of modern China.
Subject University of Macau — Dissertations
澳門大學 — 論文
Opium trade — China — Kuang Tung Province — History
Opium trade — China — History — 19th century
China — Foreign economic relations — 19th century
Local Subject History — Department of History
歷史學 — 歷史系
Added Author Antony, Robert J.
University of Macau. Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities. Department of History
Added Title Opium problem in Guangdong, 1858-1917
利益之爭 : 1858-1917年間廣東鴉片問題探析
UM Standard No. UM-b1000001

 

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