1，China as a Sea Power, 1127-1368
Jung-Pang Lo (Author), Bruce A. Elleman (Editor)
Paperback: 378 pages
Publisher: Singapore University Press (15 Sep 2012)
Lo Jung-pang argues that during each of the three periods when imperial China embarked on maritime enterprises (the Qin and Han dynasties, the Sui and early Tang dynasties, and the Song, Yuan, and early Ming dynasties), coastal states took the initiative at a time when China was divided, maritime trade and exploration peaked when China was strong and unified, and then declined as Chinese power weakened. At such times, China’s people became absorbed by internal affairs, and state policy focused on threats from the north and the west. These cycles of maritime activity, each lasting roughly five hundred years, corresponded with cycles of cohesion and division, strength and weakness, prosperity and impoverishment, expansion and contraction.
In the early 21st century, a strong and outward looking China is again building up its navy and seeking maritime dominance, with important implications for trade, diplomacy and naval affairs. Events will not necessarily follow the same course as in the past, but Lo Jung-pang’s analysis suggests useful questions for the study of events as they unfold in the years and decades to come.
About the Author & Editor
Lo Jung-pang (1912–81) was a renowned professor of Chinese history at the University of California at Davis. In 1957 he completed a 600-page typed manuscript entitled China as a Sea Power, 1127–1368, but he died without arranging for the book to be published. Bruce Elleman found the manuscript in the UC Davis archives in 2004, and with the support of Dr Lo’s family prepared an edited version of the manuscript for publication.
Bruce A. Elleman is Research Professor in the Maritime History Department of the Center for Naval Warfare Studies at the U.S. Naval War College.
2，Chinese Junks on the Pacific: Views from a Different Deck
(New Perspectives on Maritime History and Nautical Archaeolog) [Paperback]
James C. Bradford (Foreword), Gene A. Smith (Foreword), Hans Konrad Van Tilburg (Author)
Paperback: 288 pages
Publisher: University Press of Florida; 3 edition (30 July 2013)
“Chinese mariners and their incredible craft represent one of the world’s oldest and most advanced seafaring traditions. Chinese Junks on the Pacific is a scholarly and readable examination of the subject and how the West’s mistaken perceptions of China’s seafarers led to more than a century of neglect and misguided condescension.”–James P. Delgado, Vancouver Maritime Museum “Van Tilburg’s whole-hearted admiration of the achievements of Chinese shipbuilders and sailors underlies . . . his exploration of their role in modern North American and Chinese maritime culture.”–Cheryl Ward, Florida State University Beginning in 1905, a handful of traditional Chinese sailing vessels, known as junks, sailed from China to North America across the Pacific. These were some of the last commercial sailing junks of China, most of which had little trouble crossing thousands of miles of ocean on their way to American ports. Crowds welcomed them in Victoria, San Francisco, Los Angeles, Portland, and San Diego, yet often regarded them with a mixture of surprise and contempt as quaint, unwieldy constructions in the fashion of sea monsters and even bizarre objects of fancy. As traveling cultural objects, displaying a variety of gruesome weaponry and other artifacts, some of them served as public floating museums. The arrival of these vessels allowed Western observers to catch a rare glimpse of a little-known yet sophisticated maritime technology and seafaring culture. Van Tilburg’s study of this history–the maritime heritage of Chinese junks and their transpacific voyages–examines ten junks, how they were made, why and how they traveled, and how the West received them. Combining historical narrative with ethnology, anthropology, maritime archaeology, and nautical technology, he draws on a wide range of newspaper sources, secondary texts, nautical treatise, archaeological site work, rare historical photos and sketches, and the personal testimony of the sailors themselves to examine these vessels not only as transport vehicles but as complex cultural artifacts that “speak” of a distant seafaring past and intimate cultural ties to the sea. While attention to maritime China has focused primarily on periods versus centuries, Chinese Junks on the Pacific is the story behind the traditional Chinese vessels of the 19th century and how the West misunderstood them. Accessible reading, this book will appeal to scholars of Asian seafaring and archaeology, sailing aficionados drawn to the junk’s form and sailing qualities, and those interested in Chinese-American interactions and encounters. Hans Konrad Van Tilburg, maritime heritage coordinator for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) Marine Sanctuary Program in the Pacific Islands Region, has also served as an instructor in maritime archaeology and history at the University of Hawai’i, Manoa.
3，Imperial Chinese Military History: 8000 BC – 1912 AD
Marvin C. Whiting (Author)
Paperback: 604 pages
Publisher: Writers Club Press (17 April 2002)
This is an account of military operations in China, Tibet, Korea and Vietnam from the beginning of Chinese history untill the revolution of 1912. It is intended to fill the biggest of the gaps in military knowledge about non western warfare. It describes China’s major wars, its growth in military theory and technology and the first use of gunpower. Here you will meet the theorist SunTzu and Wu Chi; the bandit, Liu Bang, who faught his way to the throne. You will ride with the great commanders Han Xin; Cao Cao(Tso Tso), and Zhuge Liang, “He of the five inches of limber tounge”. You will meet the greatest conqueror of them all; Genghis Khan and that paragon of loyalty YueFei.
4，A Military History of China
David A. Graff (Editor), Robin Higham (Editor)
Paperback: 336 pages
Publisher: The University Press of Kentucky; Updated edition (15 Mar 2012)