4月 292015
 

拙文“Wokou Raiding Activities and the Coastal Defence System of Shandong in the early Ming Dynasty” 《明初山东倭寇与沿海卫所制度考论》发表于National Maritime Research (《国家航海》)第11期(2015),第73-108页,系本人生平第一篇古代史论文,也是第一篇正式发表的英文论文,算是自2012年10月转向元明亚洲海洋史学习的第一篇成果汇报。本文系博士论文一章节的一部分,初稿完成于2013年8月,原文较长,近60页,鉴于长文发表困难,只好分成两部分发表,另外一部分《明初山东沿海卫所设置年代考》(中文)纯属考证性文章,可能将在《中国历史地理论丛》发表。待后者发表后,有关明初山东海防卫所的研究才算完璧。

感谢诸位编辑的辛苦工作!此文发表比较匆忙,仅经过Prof. Angela Schottenhammer润色,未请native speaker润色,英文若有不妥之处,还请诸位方家见谅!欢迎围观、拍砖。

PDF全文可移步万方数据库下载。若下载困难,欢迎索取原档。

Wokou Raiding Activities and the Coastal Defence System of Shandong in the early Ming Dynasty

MA Guang*

Abstract: In the early Ming times, wokou raided the coastal regions of Shandong frequently, and they burned houses, plundered grain and treasures, and harmed, kidnapped and even killed people, which had a very bad influence on coastal people. In order to prevent wokou, the Ming government had to fortify and strengthen the coastal defence in Shandong. Although the military system of Shandong was similar to that of the whole China, it has several distinguishing features that should be considered particularly noteworthy. For instance, more than a half of the coastal guards in Shandong only had three rather than five battalions. Moreover, those guards that had five battalions always did not dispose of the complete quantity of soldiers. Second, those coastal guards and battalions were established flexibly, rather than strictly adhered to the regulation that “one county should have one battalion, and several counties should have one guard”. Third, normally, battalions and companies in the same county were always headed by the same guard, but Matingzhen battalion and Huanghezhai company, both of which were in Huang County, were controlled by Laizhou and Dengzhou guards respectively. Fourth, most coastal guards in Shandong had their own towns, which were not always located at the same city with prefecture or county government offices. Therefore, these special characteristics in Shandong provide us with a good case to understand more details of local military system in Ming China. Based on a large number of historical materials, such as textual records including official records, memorials to the throne, individual collected works, local gazettes and family tree books, and historical relics including official seals, ancient ships, stone tablets, and weapons, my study focuses on wokou raiding activities, and the establishment and development of guards and battalions system of Shandong in the early Ming Dynasty.

Keywords: Coastal guards and battalions, Military system in Ming China, Shandong, Wokou

Conclusion

In the early Ming times, wokou raided the coastal regions of Shandong frequently, and they burned houses, plundered grain and treasures, and harmed, kidnapped and even killed people, which had a very bad influence on coastal people. In order to prevent wokou, the Ming government had to fortify and strengthen the coastal defence in Shandong. As a part of military system in Ming China, the guards and battalions system of Shandong was basically similar to that of the whole China. From five chief military commissions in the central government to regional military commissions, guards, and battalions, and then to companies, platoons and squads, the entire coastal military defence system was set up orderly and managed strictly. Those soldiers also farmed state lands, which could provide grain and cloth for themselves, so it could reduce the heavy burden on government. Therefore, the state farm system was popular in the early Ming Dynasty. Those coastal guards and battalions were scattered and could not support each other, so in order to strengthen the cooperation between different coastal guards, the anti-wokou regional military commission and three coastal divisions were established. Meanwhile, civil officials, such as coastal patrol circuit and military defence circuit were also set up to surveil military officers.

Although the military system in Shandong was similar to that of the whole China, it has several distinguishing features. First, from the aforementioned historical materials in middle and late Ming Dynasty, we can see that more than a half of the coastal guards in Shandong, such as Andong, Aoshan, Chengshan, Dasong, Jinghai and Weihai guards, only had three rather than five battalions. Moreover, those guards that had five battalions always did not dispose of the complete quantity of soldiers. For instance, Dengzhou guard had five battalions, but it only had 2,000 soldiers, which was less than the half of 5,600. Second, those coastal guards and battalions were established flexibly, rather than strictly adhered to the regulation that “one county should have one battalion, and several counties should have one guard”. For instance, in Wendeng County there were three guards: Weihai, Chengshan and Jinghai guards. Third, normally, battalions and companies in the same county were always headed by the same guard, but Matingzhen battalion and Huanghezhai company, both of which were in Huang County, were controlled by Laizhou guard and Dengzhou guard respectively. Fourth, most coastal guards in Shandong had their own towns, which were not always located at the same city with prefecture or county government offices. These special characteristics in Shandong provide us with a good case to understand more details of local military system in Ming China.

* MA Guang is a PhD candidate of Ghent University of Belgium and PhD student of University of Macau, who is studying Northeast Asian maritime history in the Ming Dynasty, and Chinese maritime customs and opium history in the late Qing Dynasty. The paper is sponsored by “East Asian Mediterranean”, which is a sub-project of “The Indian Ocean World: The Making of the First Global Economy in the Context of Human-Environment Interaction” of the MCRI (Major Collaborative Research Initiative) project sponsored by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, and the Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Ghent University, Belgium.

中文翻译版:

明初山东倭寇与沿海卫所制度考论

摘要:山东半岛三面环海,漫长的海岸线及其东突入海的地理环境使其海防极为困难,很容易成为倭寇袭击的对象。明初山东频遭倭寇侵扰,沿海居民饱受其害。为防止倭寇进犯,明太祖下令在山东设置多座沿海卫所。明代山东沿海卫所属全国卫所布局的一部分,其制度与全国大体相同,从中央的都督府,再到地方的都指挥使司、指挥使、千户、百户、总旗官、小旗官等构成了严密的管理和战斗体系。然而,山东沿海卫所的设置又有其特殊情况:(1)从兵力配置来看,山东沿海卫所兵力多不足额,且在编制上并非每卫都有五所,即使部分卫设有五个所,但其总兵额却依然不足;(2)因山东海岸线漫长,卫所的设置有时候并不严格遵循“一郡者设所,连郡者设卫”的定制,而是根据实际情况灵活变动,故有时候会出现一县境内就设有多个卫的情况;(3)一个州县境内的千户所、百户所通常都会隶属同一个卫,但是同在黄县境内的马停镇千户所和黄河寨百户所却分别属于莱州卫与登州卫;(4)山东沿海诸卫所多有自己的专属城池,且常不与当地的府州县治同城;(5)山东沿海卫所的设置还有“爆发性”的特点。洪武三十一年,明太祖下令一次性在山东设置七卫、两守御千户所,实属罕见。山东沿海卫所制度多为以往学者所忽视,其重要的特殊性更鲜有人涉及。本文利用大量档案、文集、方志、家谱等文献资料并参以铜官印、碑刻、沉船、大炮筒等出土文物,对明初山东沿海卫所制度进行深入探讨,为了解明代地方军事制度具体实施情况提供了一个典型实例。

关键词:山东、倭寇、沿海卫所、明代军事

  One Response to “明初山东倭寇与沿海卫所制度”

  1. 明代初期的军事还是较强大的。

Leave a Reply to 夏日博客 Cancel reply

You may use these HTML tags and attributes: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <s> <strike> <strong>

(required)

(required)